Signs Of The Innovated Sects
Imaam Aboo Haatim Ar-Raazee (d. 264) said:
“A sign of the people of innovation is their hatred of the people of narrations. A sign of the heretics is that they call the people of sunnah ‘Hashawiyyah’, wanting thereby to nullify the narrations. A sign of the Jahmiyyah (1) is that they call the people of the sunnah ‘Mushabbihah’ (2). A sign of the Qadariyah (3) is that they call the people of narrations ‘Mujbirah’ (4). A sign of the Murji’ah (5) is that they call the people of narrations ‘Mukhaalifah’ (Opponents) and ‘Nuqsaaniyyah’ (the Deficient Ones). A sign of the Raafidhah (6) is that they call the people of the sunnah ‘Naasibah’ (7). However the people of the sunnah are not deserving of any name except one, and it is absurd to gather them upon these names.”(8)
(1) Jahmiyyah: The followers of Jahm Ibn Safwaan, the student of Ja’d Ibn Dirham, both of whom were executed for their apostasy in the time of the later taabi’oon. Amongst their beliefs is that they deny the Attributes of Allaah and declare the Qur’aan to be created. Jahm Ibn Safwaan is the one who unleashed upon this Ummah the horrific innovation of Ta’teel (denial of Allaah’s Attributes) either directly, or by twisting the meaning of Hand of Allaah to mean: His Power or generosity. They also deny that Allaah is above the creation, above His Throne, as well as holding the belief that Paradise and Hellfire are not everlasting.
(2) Mushabbihah: Those who declare that Allaah (as well as His Attributes) are like His creation. This was first propagated by Muqaatil Ibn Sulaymaan Al-Khuraasaanee, during the era of the Taabi’oon.
(3) Qadariyah: They are also the followers of Jahm Ibn Safwaan. This sect was founded by Mu’bad Ibn Juhanee, in Basrah at the end of the era of the companions. They deny qadr (Divine Pre-Decree) of Allaah and believe that man creates his own actions, which are free from the Will and Power of Allaah.
(4) Mujbirah: they hold the belief that people have no free will, and are not responsible for their own actions, rather they are forced.
(5) Murji’ah: They hold the belief of irjaa’ (to hold that sins, major or minor, do not effect faith and that imaan neither increases nor decreases). They claim that actions are not a part of faith and that people do not vary in faith. The first to call to this belief was Gheelaan Ibn Abee Gheelaan Al-Qadaree. He was executed in 105H
(6) Raafidhah: They are the extreme Shee’ah who claim themselves the twelvers or Ja’fariyyah. This sect was formed by ‘Abdulaah Ibn Saba’, a Jew who appeared during the caliphate of ‘Uthmaan. He claimed to have love for ‘Alee and the Family of the Prophet (saw). They curse the companions and declare them to be disbelievers, especially Aboo BAkr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan and the wives of te Prophet. They also believe that the Qur’aan is incomplete.
(7) Naasibah: Those who have hatred towards ‘Alee and the family of the Prophet.
(8) Related by Ibnut-Tabaree in As-Sunnah (1/189)