The Speech Of Allaah, Part 3 | A ‘Proof’ And The Refutation Of The Ash’arees


The View Of The Ash’arees:

The Ash’arees have deviated away from the sunnah in the aspect of the kalaam (Speech) of Allaah in many ways.

Discussing the historical development of the various sects related to the kalaam of Allaah, Imaam Ash-Shahrastaanee (d. 548) wrote:

“Then Abul Hasan Al-Ash’aree came and invented a third opinion, and claimed that all sound must be created. And with this opinion, he contradicted the consensus (ijmaa’) before him, for he claimed that what we recite is not the actual kalaam of Allaah. And this belief is in essence an innovation.”

[Nihaayat Al-Aqdaam, p. 313]

Below are three ways in which the Ash’arees have deviated away in the belief of Allaah’s kalaam (Speech):

1) Without Sound:

The Ash’arees believe that the kalaam of Allaah is without a sound. By using theological rhetoric (1), they reasoned that the one who speaks must speak with a sound and breath, and these are created. In addition, they argued that speech must come from a combination of organs, such as the tongue, throat and mouth, but Allaah is free of these (2).

2) Without Words And Letters:

They also reasoned that words, composed of letters, can never be eternal, since one letter follows another, and has a specific place in each word. Therefore, since each letter is sequential, following the one before it, it cannot have existed from eternity (3). Therefore, according to them, it was not possible for Allaah’s kalaam (Speech) to be with a sound, or for Allaah’s kalaam to be composed of words and letters, for if it were, it would be created.

3) An Expression Of An Internal Speech:

The Ash’arees claim that the speech of Allaah is without sound and His Speech is fact an internal speech (like the thought of the mind which is without sound) .Therefore this Qur’aan (according to them) is an expression of that internal speech, rather than His actual Speech which He spoke.

The Refutation:

In this (and the next) post I will only be refuting the first deviation. (Deviation two and three will in shaa Allaah be discussed in the near future).

So, as for this belief that the kalaam of Allaah is without a sound, then this contradicts the proofs that were given in the previous two posts from the Qur’aan, sunnah, and statements of the Salaf.

The presumption that sound must come form organs is a presumption based upon the characteristics of humans! Therefore, it is not necessarily true for all objects.

Allaah (swt) has made the Heavens and the Earth speak, for they responded to His Command and said:

We come together willingly.” [41:11]

And Allaah (swt) will make the skins of the disbelievers speak on the Day of Judgement,

And they (the disbelievers) will say, ‘Why did you (our skins) testify against us?’ They will say, ‘Allaah has caused us to speak, as He causes all things to speak…” [41:21]

Allaah (swt) caused these objects to speak, yet these objects do not have the organs that humans need to speak. Is not Allaah, the One Who created all things, capable of speaking as He wishes?

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, beautifully refuted this innovated and heretical belief, said:

“As for their claim (meaning the claim of the Jahmiyyah, which was later taken by the Ash’arees) that sound can only occur from a combination of the throat, and lips, and tongue, then did not Allaah say to the Heavens and the Earth:

‘Come together willingly or unwillingly!’ They both said, ‘We come together willingly.’ ” [41:11]

And did not Allaah say:

And We subjected the mountains and the birds to glorify Our praises, along with (Prophet) Daawood.” [21:79]

Do these people presume that they (i.e., the mountains, the Heavens and the Earth) glorified with a throat, and lips, and tongues?! And how about when a disbeliever’s limbs will testify against him?… Do you think that they will testify with throats,, lips and tongues?! Nay, rather Allaah will make them to speak, as He wishes, without any throat or lips or tongues!”

[Ar-Radd ‘Ala Al-Jahmiyyah, p. 375]

Therefore, to claim (as the Ash’arees do) that if the kalaam of Alaah were with sound, it would entail giving these characteristics to the Creator is an analogy of Allaah with man! And this is improper and cannot be accepted.

Footnotes:

(1) Please see my comments on this post to get an idea of what theological rhetoric is. I have also posted on articles quoting the four imams on how they were against this concept. Please refer to what was said by Imaam Aboo Haneefah, Imaam Maalik, Imaam Shaafi’ee and Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.

(2) The foundation of their deviation, is based on their minds not being able to comprehend that Allaah is unlike His creation. Had they only understood that there is nothing like Allaah, taking this as their foundation, such deviations would not come about.

(3) The Ash’arees also try to prove that the word kalaam (Speech) signifies an internal thought, and not necessarily a spoken word.

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2 Responses to “The Speech Of Allaah, Part 3 | A ‘Proof’ And The Refutation Of The Ash’arees”

  1. Its shocking to know that people think hanafis have this ^ belief!!! Never! We don’t have this belief rather its common sense that Allah is not like His creation!!! Naoothubillah!
    May Allah increase you in knowledge brother Authenticbase and bless you with your desired blessings in this life and the next! Amin. …..but please do not pass on ignorant judgement that hanafis/all hanafis have this belief!

    • Assalaamu ‘alaykum,

      Akhee, I am not saying that the Hanafeees have this belief. Maybe that is what you assume I am saying because of what I mentioned in our last comments to and fro…

      The Ash’arees also have their ‘aqeedah found within the Maalikees & Shaafi’ees. As for the Hanafees, then they are mainly Ash’arees and Maatureedees.

      Not every single belief found within the Ash’arees is held by the Hanafees or Maalikees or Shaafi’ees.

      Some Hanafee sects are more guided than others. The Deobandees, for example, are closer to the sunnah than the Brelwees.

      The differences in ‘aqeedah amongst the various sects that the madhabs have split into, vary from one to another.

      Again, not all the beliefs of the Ash’arees are found within the ‘Hanafees’.

      As for distorting the meaning of the Names and Attributs of Allaah (like saying His Hand means power or grip) then the Brelwees and Deobandee sects have it written within their pillars of faith that such is their ‘aqeedah. take Dr. Taahir Al-Qaadri, for one. If one reads his trabslation of the Qur’aan into urdu, he clearly changes the meaning for Hand…

      But as far as this post goes and the deviations contained therein, I am unaware of the Brelwees/Deobandees have adopted this belief or not…

      The Deobandees have clearly stated that they take their fiqh from Imaam Aboo Haneefah, and they take their ‘aqeedah from Abul Hasan Al-Ash’aree (the founder of the Ash’aree sect).

      But again; whether or not this belief is taken by them, Allaahu ta’aalah ‘alam. I am only presenting the belief of the Ash’arees here on this post.

      I hope this has cleared some confusion/doubt as to what I was intending by this post.

      May Allaah guide us all to (and keep us firmly on) the straight path, ameen.

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