Specifying The General Verses Can Occur By Four Types


takhsees (specifyication of the general) is accomplished by specifying words or phrases found either within the same verse, or within another verse. The five ways a general verse can be specified are as follows:

1) Exception (Istithnaa):

This is when the verse is applied generally but has exceptions to that general verse. An example of this can be seen in the verse:

The recompense of those who [alladheena] wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter. Except for those who (having fled away and then) came back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [5:33-34]

2) Modification/Description (Sifah):

A verse of the Quraan conveyed in the general form, may sometimes be specified by way of being described or qualified. An example of this is the verse:

[And forbidden to you for marriage are] your stepdaughters, under your guardianship from your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage.” [4:23]

Here we see the general meaning of step-daughters, has thus been qualified with a description of the type of step-daughters. Note; the description thus being, “from your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage.” not “under your guardianship“.

3) Condition (Shart):

A condition placed on a general verse acts like a specifier. It is when a verse is generally targeted but has certain conditions for the application of the ruling to take place. Such conditions usually occur introduced with the word “if (in)”. An example of this can be seen in the verse:

It is prescribed upon you that you bequest a good portion [of your wealth] for your parents and close relations when death approaches any of you [ahadakum], if you have left some wealth; an obligation on those who fear Allaah.” [2:180]

And to illustrate this with another example, we show the verse concerning inheritance:

In what your wives leave, you are entitled to one half if they have no children.” [4:12]

4) Clauses Of Time/Extent (Ghaayah):

This is where a verse general, but restricted with regards to time or extent. Such restrictions (to the generality) usually occur introduced with the word “until (hattaa)”. An example of this can be seen in the verse:

…Do not shave your heads until your sacrificial animal has reached its appointed place [of sacrifice]…” [2:196]

Another good example can be sen in the verse concerning menstruating women:

…Do not come near them [for sexual relations] until they have reached a state of purity…” [2:222]

And yet another easy to see example, in the verse regarding washing of the limbs in wudhoo:

… washing of your faces and hands up to the elbow. ” [5:6]

[Taken form “Usool Al-Tafseer” by Bilaal Philips, Pp. 270-273 & “Principles Of Islamic Jurisprudence” by Muhammad Haashim Kamaali, Pp. 150-151]

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