Archive for the Study Circle Notes Category

Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 9: The Funeral Prayer [Part 1]

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 30, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

[As usual my notes will be indented written in gray text. However due to the length of this topic I will devide it into three segments]

Chapter 9: The Funeral Prayer [Part 1 of 3]

Chapter 9a: Funeral Prayer, its Legal Status

There is a consensus among all the great Muslim jurists that a funeral prayer for a deceased person (1) is a collective obligation or fard kifayah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, commanded the Muslims to offer it, and they have been doing so ever since they received this commandment.

(1) … in congregation…

And it is waajib to do so (in congregation) because the Prophet (saw) said, “Pray as you have seen me praying.” [Bukhaaree]

If the janaazah prayer is done individually it would suffice and the obligation (of offering the janaazah prayer) would be fulfiled but they would sin for leaving off the jamaa’ah (congregation).

As An-Nawawee said, “There is no difference that it is permissible to pray janaazah individually. But the sunnah is to pray in jamaa’ah (congregation.” [Al-Majmoo’ 5/314]

The minimum people to establish a congregation is three, if there are two people than one stands behind the other, not next to him (this will be discussed later inshaaAllaah).

Abu Hurairah reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was informed of the death of a person, he used to ask: ‘Does he owe anything to anyone?‘ If the answer was in the affirmative, he would then ask: ‘Has he (the deceased) left anything to settle his debt?‘ If he had left something to settle his debt, he would offer the funeral prayer for him. Otherwise, he would say to the Muslims: ‘Offer a (funeral) prayer for your brother‘ (Bukhari 5371 and Muslim 1691).

With regards to paying off the debt, that has been discussed in the previous chapter “What to do when someone dies“.

Chapter 9b: Reward for Offering Funeral Prayer

The following hadeeth can be divided into two parts. Part 1:

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Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 8: Al-Kafan (The Shroud)

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , on February 21, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

Ok, I seem to have forgotten about finishing these notes off. Way more chapters left. Unlike previously where my notes were placed between these brackets: {{like this}}, I will now just have them indented. To proceed:

Chapter 8: The Shroud:

Chapter 8a: Legal Status of the Shroud

Shrouding the body of the deceased, even it be with just one piece of cloth, is a collective obligation (fard kifayah) of the Muslims. Bukhari narrated from Khabbab that he said: “We migrated with Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, seeking Allah’s pleasure, and we hope He will reward us for that. In the meanwhile some of us died and received no reward in this life. One of them was Musa’ab ibn ‘Umayr, who was killed in the Battle of Uhud. We did not find anything to shroud him in except a piece of cloth. When we covered his head, his feet would show, and if we covered his feet, his head would show. Allah ‘ s Messenger, peace be upon him, ordered us to use the cloth to cover his head with it and cover his feet with some grass.” [Idhkhir; a sweet smelling grass that is also used to cover roofs]

Another proof to show that it is fard kifaayah is the hadeeth where the prophet (saw) commanded his companions:

“…And shroud him in two garments in which he performed ihraam…” [Bukhaaree, Musilm & others]

Chapter 8b: Preferable Practices in Shrouding

The reward for shrouding a dead:

The Prophet (saw) said: “…And he who shrouds a Musilm, Allaah will clothe him on the day of Resurrection from silk garments of Jannah.” [Al-Haakim, Al-Bayhaqee, & others. Saheeh]

In shrouding, the following practices are recommended and should be observed while preparing a body for burial.

1 The shroud should be nice, clean, and large enough to cover the entire body. This is based on a narration of Ibn Majah and Tirmizhi, who regard it a sound hadith from Abu Qatadah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “If one of you is a guardian to his deceased brother, he should give him the best shroud he can.”

Further proof for the shroud to be good:

The Prophet (saw) said: “When one of you is responsible for his (deceased) brother, let him shroud him well, because they will be resurrected in their shrouds.” [As-Saheehah, 1425]

“Shrouding well” means the shroud should be clean, thick (not see-through), long enough, moderate cost and appearance. It does not mean that it should be extravagant.

An-Nawawee in Majmoo’ 5/195 & 197 says that it should be comparable to the type of clothing he used to wear during his life.

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Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 7: Washing A Dead Body

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 10, 2010 by TheAuthenticBase

Fiqh-Us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Janaa’iz (Funerals)

CHAPTER 7: Washing A Dead Body

{{NOTE: Please note that all my notes from my study circle/class are between these double-curly brackets in italic. }}

CHAPTER 7a: Washing A Dead Body

{{NOTE: The following is needed when washing the deceased:

a) Scissors

b) Gloves

c) Sponge

d) Non-alcoholic perfume

e) Warm water

f) Bucket

g) Soap/shampoo

h) Cotton wool (whenever needed)

i) Assistance (at least one)

j) Three Towels

– One for covering the deceased’s awrah
– One before doing the last ghusl with perfume
– One for whole body drying

k) 3 White sheets – approx. 2.5m by 75cm

l) Four straps to tie the kafan


The entire body must be washed with water, at least once {{NOTE: Not once, it is a sunnah to wash it at least thrice. If you want to do it more than that, you can wash it 3 or 5 or 7 times, as per necessity (B1254).}}, regardless of whether the deceased is a male and needed a ritual bath {{NOTE: Janaabah}}, or a female who was menstruating at the time (of her death). It is recommended {{NOTE: No proof to say it is recommended.}} that the body be placed on an elevated surface i.e., a table or a board {{NOTE: Again, there is no proof from a hadeeth for this, because here you could basically go on forever, i.e., it’s recommended to switch the light of the room on, to know what you’re doing, to not take your time etc. An elevated surface is for the person (who is washing) to decide for himself, for example, he may have a back problem. }}. It then should be stripped of clothes {{NOTE: Wherever it is possible. I.e., not if his clothes are burnt onto his skin}}, but his ‘awra (private parts) should be covered {{NOTE: Except for husband and wife or when it is a small child.}} {{NOTE: Only the Prophet (saw) was washed with his clothes on (order from Allaah).}}. (Ash-Shafi’i says that it is better to wash the body of the deceased wearing a shirt, if it is thin enough to let water reach the body. The Prophet, peace be upon him, was washed this way, but it was done only in his case. The common practice has been to cover the ‘awra and wash the body) At the washing, only people whose presence is needed may stay.

The washer, male or female {{NOTE: Men wash the men and women wash the women. The only exception, as said above, is when a husband washes his wife and when a wife washes her husband, and also a woman washing a small boy (is an exception to the rule)}}, must be a trustworthy and pious person who will not broadcast what he or she might see except what is good.

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Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 6: Washing The Dead

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 8, 2010 by TheAuthenticBase

Fiqh-Us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Janaa’iz (Funerals)

CHAPTER 6: Washing The Dead

{{NOTE: Please note that all my notes from my study circle/class are between these double-curly brackets in italic. }}

CHAPTER 6a: Washing The Dead

The majority of jurists are of the opinion that washing the body of a dead Muslim is a fard kifayah or a collective obligation. If some people attend to it, it is done on behalf of all, as commanded by Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, and practiced by the Muslim community.

CHAPTER 6b: Who Is To Be Washed And Who Is Not

The body of a deceased Muslim, other than one killed {{NOTE: Instantly}} in a battlefield by the infidels {{NOTE: or by the kuffaar or wrongdoers}}, should be washed.

CHAPTER 6c: Washing Severed Parts Of A Body

There is a difference of opinion among Muslim jurists concerning washing parts severed from a body. According to (a) Ash-Shafi’i, (b) Ahmad and (c) Ibn Hazm these parts must be washed and shrouded, and funeral prayer should be offered for the departed soul.

{{NOTE: Now to look at what each of these three said:}}

(a) Ash-Shafi’i said: “We were informed that a bird dropped a (human) hand in Makkah after the Battle of the Camel. The people identified it by a ring on one of its fingers (It was the hand of Abdul al-Rahman ibn ‘Itab ibn Usayd (probably killed in the battle)). It was washed and a (funeral) prayer was offered on it. This was witnessed by many Companions alive at the time.

(b) Ahmad said: Abu Ayub offered funeral prayer on a (severed) foot of a dead person, while ‘Umar offered prayer on a dead man’s bones.

(c) Ibn Hazm said: “A funeral prayer may be offered on any organ found from a dead Muslim’s body. It should be washed and shrouded, except when it is part of a martyr’ s body.” Ibn Hazm further remarks that offering prayer on any organ found from a Muslim’s body is analogous {{NOTE: i.e., similar}} to praying for the whole person of the deceased, namely, for body and soul.

Abu Hanifah and Malik say, however, that, “If more than half of a Muslim ‘s body is found, then it should be washed and funeral prayer be offered on it, but otherwise it should not be washed nor should any funeral prayer be offered on it. {{NOTE: No textual proof. Second paragraph, hand of sahaabah found then it was washed and a funeral prayer was offered over it (a hand!), so this cancels out this opinion.}}

{{NOTE: Side note: You can only open up a grave if a person was not washed or shrouded (like the prophet (saw) done to a hypocrite) or to put a body part in (as long as it doesn’t ruin the bones) or even if you drop a valuable item in it and need to take it out.}}

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Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 5: Mourning For A Deceased

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 10, 2010 by TheAuthenticBase

Fiqh-Us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Janaa’iz (Funerals)

CHAPTER 5: Mourning For A Deceased

{{NOTE: Please note that all my notes from my study circle/class are between these double-curly brackets in italic. }}

It is permissible for a woman to mourn for a period of three days on the death of a near relative, provided that her husband does not object to her doing so. It is not permissible for her to mourn for more than three days, except in the case of her husband’s death, when she is to mourn for four months and ten days, which is a legally prescribed period of waiting or “iddah”. This is reported by the group, (The compilers of the six most reliable hadith books generally known as Sihah Sitta) except Tirmizhi. They report from Umm ‘Atiyyah, that the Messenger of Allah said: “A woman should not mourn for any deceased person for more than three days, except in the case of her husband’s death, which she may mourn for a period of four months and ten days. Such a woman (in mourning) is not to wear any (brightly) colored dress {{NOTE: Which is forbidden anyway}}. She may wear only plain dress. During this period she should not use any adornment or eye makeup, nor wear any perfume, nor dye her hands and feet with henna, nor comb her hair, except at the end of her menstruation period, when she may use some cleaning or refreshing agents (such as perfume, etc. ) to get rid of any offensive smell left over from her period.” Accordingly, when a widow mourns, she must not use any adornment, such as jewelry, kohl, 58 silk, perfume, or henna dye on her hands and feet. A widow must observe this waiting period in deference to her late husband’s memory and to fulfill her obligations toward him.

CHAPTER 5a: Preparing Food for the Bereaved Family is Encouraged {{NOTE: Vice-versa is a biddah}}

Abdullah ibn Ja’far {{NOTE: Ja’far died as a shaheed, r.a, and was the prophet (saw)’s cousin. He was identical to him (saw) in the facial features.}} reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “Prepare some food for the family of Ja’far, for what has befallen them is keeping them preoccupied.” This is narrated by Abu Daw’ud {{NOTE: AD 3132}}, Ibn Majah and Tirmizhi, who grades it as a sound hadith.

{{NOTE: This should only be done purely for the sake/pleasure of Allaah. It shouldn’t be done for show or to repay a favour (no reward if done like this)}}

The Prophet, peace be upon him, recommended this practice for it is an act of virtue and kindness and brings friends and neighbors closer to each other.

Ash-Shafi’i said: “It is recommended that the relatives of the deceased prepare enough food to feed all the deceased’s family for one day and night, for it is the sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a practice of good people.” {{NOTE: It aint a MUST to do this for 1 day and 1 night. It really depends on how busy they are- how struck they are with this calamity. Give food for more than a day and night depending on the situation.}}

The scholars hold it commendable to urge the deceased’s family to eat so that their sorrow or excessive grief will not cause them to avoid food and thereby become weak. These scholars also hold that to offer food to the women while they are mourning loudly is not permissible, for it would be helping them in something sinful. {{NOTE: Helping evil is just like doing evil.}}

All the schools of Islamic law disapprove of the deceased’s family preparing food for the people coming to pay their condolences, for it adds to their grief and further encumbers them unnecessarily. Such a practice would also resemble the custom of the Arabs before Islam. Referring to this practice, Jarir says: “(In those days) we considered it a part of mourning to assemble at the deceased’s house and prepare food after burial for those gathered there.” Some scholars consider this to be absolutely forbidden (haram). {{NOTE: Ahmad 2/204 }}

Ibn Qudamah observes: ‘It is permissible, however, when there is genuine need for it, since sometimes people attending the funeral may be from distant places, and they have to stay with the family of the deceased, in which case the family has to host such guests.

CHAPTER 5b: Preparing the Kafan (Shroud) and Grave Before Death

{{NOTE: Make as clean (and nice) as possible – As stated in a hadith. Though not expensive, because extravagance is haraam!}}

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Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 4: What Should Be Done When Someone Dies

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 12, 2010 by TheAuthenticBase

Fiqh-Us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Janaa’iz (Funerals)

CHAPTER 4: What Should be Done When Someone Dies

{{All Notes are between these double curled brackets.}}

It is sunnah to do the following when a person dies:

{{Note: Sub-Chapter: What to do when someone is on his/her deathbed:}}

1 Advise the dying person to say: “La ilaha illa-Allah” (there is no god but Allah). It is narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Prompt your dying people to say: ‘La ilaha illa-Allah’.” (Muslim, Abu Daw’ud, Tirmizhi) Another report on the authority of Mu’azh ibn Jabal states that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “He whose last words are ‘La ilaha illa- Allah’ shall enter Paradise.” (Narrated by Abu Daw’ud; Al-Hakim considers it a sound hadith)

This prompting (talqin) is necessary only when the dying person is unable to utter the shahadah (La ilaha illa- Allah . . . ). If such a person is able to utter these words then there is no need for prompting, but he should rather be advised to do so. Such advice is useful in cases of persons who are in possession of their faculties of reason and speech. If one is already mentally impaired such advice cannot be of benefit. But one who is unable to speak might say these words in his heart. The scholars are of the opinion that no pressure should be put on the dying person. So one should not say to him, “Say, ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’,” lest he should become annoyed and utter something improper. One may say the shahadah, however, in such a way that the dying person might be able to hear it and repeat it. If he utters it once, he should not be asked to repeat it unless he says some words after it. In such a case he should be asked to repeat shahadah to ensure that it be his last utterance.

Most scholars are of the opinion that one attending a dying person may repeat only the words: “La ilaha ill-Allah,” according to the apparent meaning of the hadith. Others are of the opinion that the dying person should be prompted to utter the two testimonies (that is, “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger”). The purpose is to remind him of the Oneness of Allah, which includes both of the two testimonies.

2 Lay the dying person so that the qibla is on his right side. To this effect it is recorded that Abu Qatadah said: “Upon arrival in Madinah, the Prophet, peace be upon him, enquired about a person called al-Bara ibn Ma’rur. The people told the Prophet, peace be upon him, that he had died, and had willed one-third of his property to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and that his face be turned toward the Ka’bah at the time of his death. Hearing this, the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: ‘He has been true to his innate nature. I return the one-third of his property to his children. ‘ Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, left and offered a prayer for him and prayed, saying: ‘O Allah! Forgive him, have mercy on him, and cause him to enter Your Paradise. Indeed, You have accepted this prayer’.” (Narrated by Al-Baihaqi and Al-Hakim, who observes: “I know of no hadith, other than this one, with regard to turning the face of a dying person toward Ka’bah.”)

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Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Notes, Janaa’iz (Funerals), Ch. 3: Prohibition Of Using Amulets

Posted in Fiqh-Us-Sunnah Classes with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 18, 2009 by TheAuthenticBase

Fiqh-Us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Janaa’iz (Funerals)

CHAPTER 3: Prohibition of Using Amulets

{{No notes available on this chapter, as I did not have the book while in this class! Sad, but true! Real notes start from chapter 4. However, I have put what I remembered of notes where applicable. All notes are between “{{” and “}}”. }}

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, prohibited the use of amulets. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir narrates that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “If anyone wears an amulet, may Allah not help him in fulfilling his wish. If anyone wears a sea-shell around his neck, may Allah give him no peace.” (Narrated by Ahmad and Al-Hakim who consider it a sound hadith)

An amulet (tamimah) is a string of shells or beads that the Arabs used to put around their children ‘ s necks, believing that it would protect them from the evil eye. Islam abolished this superstitious practice. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, prayed against those who wore an amulet out of superstitious belief.

It is reported from Ibn Mas’ud that “once, when he entered his home, he noticed his wife wearing a knotted object round her neck. He took it away and broke it. Then he remarked: ‘The family of ‘Abdullah has become so arrogant that they now associate with Allah those for whom He has sent down no authority.’ Then, he added: ‘I have heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saying: ‘Verily, incantations, amulets, and love charms are acts of shirk (associating false gods with Allah).’ The people said: ‘O Abu Abdullah! We are familiar with incantations and amulets, but what is a love charm (altawlah)’?’He replied: ‘It is a sort of magical formula by which women sought to gain their husbands’ love’.” (Related by Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban, and both consider it a sahih hadith) ‘Imran ibn Hasin reports that “the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saw a man wearing a bracelet of copper on his arm. The Prophet, peace be upon him, exclaimed to him: ‘Woe be to you’ What is this? ‘ The man replied: ‘I am suffering from weakness (al-wahinah).’ (Al-wahinah is a disease that causes pain in the shoulders and hands. The man was wearing a copper bracelet believing it would relieve his pain and suffering. The Prophet, peace be upon him, prohibited him from wearing it because he regarded it as an amulet) The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: ‘It will give you nothing but pain. Throw it away. Had you died while wearing it, you would never have achieved salvation’.” (Narrated by Ahmad) ‘Isa ibn Hamza said: “I went to see ‘Abdullah ibn Hakim and his face was red due to high fever. I said to him: ‘Why don’t you use an amulet?’ He said: ‘We seek refuge with Allah from it. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever wears anything as an amulet will be entrusted to it”.”‘ (Abu Daw’ud)

CHAPTER 3a: Pendants with Words from the Qur’an or Hadith

‘Amr ibn Shu’aib relates from his father and from his grandfather, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Al-‘Aas, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “If one of you is frightened while sleeping, one should say: A’uzhu billah min hamazatish shayatin wa an yahdrun ‘ I seek refuge in Allah’s perfect words from His anger, His chastisement, from the evil of His creatures, and from the suggestions and approach of devils.’ Then one will never be harmed.” ‘Amr ibn Shu’aib related further that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr {{Notes: He was not a high ranking sahaabah, also this hadith is (weak? Double check)}}“used to teach this prayer to his older sons who could comprehend and memorize. For those who were not able to do so, he wrote these words down, wrapped them as pendants, and made them wear these around their necks.” (Narrated by Abu Daw’ud, Nasa’i, and Tirmihi, who says it is an acceptable but unknown hadith. Al-Hakim says it is sound)

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