Archive for mutawaatir

What is The Minimum Number Required For Mutawaatir

Posted in Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , , , , , on October 30, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

Some scholars have attempted to specify a minimum, varying from as low as four, to as many as twenty, forty and seventy up into the hundreds. All of these figures are based on analogies (qiyaas).

Opinion 1) The required number of four is based on the similar number of witnesses that constitues legal proof. Allaah says, “And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their testimony forever, they indeed are the Fasiqun (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allah).” [24:4] Based on this aayah, they say that 4 witnesses constitutes undoubted proof.

Opinion 2) Twenty is analogous with the Quraanic aayah, “If there are twenty steadfast men among you, they will overcome two hundred (fighters).” [8:65] The first one to speculate twenty was a Mu’tazilee by the name of Aboo Al-Hudhayl, he said regarding this aayah, “They cannot fight unless they represent a number that establishes them as proof against their enemy.”

Opinion 3) The next number, that is seventy, represents an analogy with another Quraanic passage where we read that, “Moses chose seventy men among his people for an appointment with Us.” [7:155] Thus proving that seventy was required to constitute a decisive proof.

Opinion 4) Some have drawn an analogy with the number of participants in the battle of Badr.

[See “Principles Of Islaamic Jurisprudence”, by Muhammad Haashim Kamali, p.93, and “The Sunnah, And Its Role In Islaamic Legislation”, by Mustafa As-Sibaa’ee, p.196]

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Ahlul Hadeeth’s Approach To The Laws Of Islaam

Posted in Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , , on September 30, 2012 by TheAuthenticBase

Shaykh Mashhoor states:

“If Ahlul Hadeeth do not find anything within the revelatory sources of the Quraan and sunnah, they then take the statements of the companions. Anything they find in the Quraan they make the sunnah a judge on it, and anything found in the sunnah, they make the understanding of the Salaf judge on it.

If they do not find anything (in the Quraan or sunnah), they then take into consideration the statements of the companions.

According to Alhul Hadeeth, the companions’ statements in regards to creed (‘aqeedah) have more authority than the companions’ statements in regards to fiqh. The companions statements in regards to fiqh are of different levels as their ijmaa’ is not like the issues wherein there was difference of opinion.

And issues from them which became widespread are not like issues which emerged from just one of them and did not become widespread.”

[Taken from “The Madhhan Of Ahlul Hadeeth” by Shaykh AMshhoor, p. 60]

Three Important Points On Specifying The General Rulings Found In The Quraan

Posted in Hadith Studies, Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on January 17, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

1) The Sunnah Can Be Divided Into His Verbal And Deeds.

As stated above the general rulings in the Quraan can be specified by way of the sunnah. This can be the verbal sunnah (as above) or by way of the actual sunnah (his deeds). An example of the specification by way of his (saw) deeds, we find the punishment of adultery in soorah An-Noor (24:2) which orders the lashing of the adulterer, however the sunnah of the messenger has specified this general rule by stoning to death for adultery by a married Muslim.

2) Can The Quraan Specify A General Ruling In The Sunnah?

As stated in the previous post, the general rulings in the Quraan can be specified by the Quraan, Sunnah, Ijmaa and Qiyaas. The general rulings in the Sunnah, likewise can be specified by the Sunnah, Ijmaa and Qiyaas. As to whether the general rulings in the Sunnah can be specified by the Quraan, there is a difference of opinion on this point as it is usually the sunnah that gives the explanation (bayaan) of the Quraan, and this is the proper role of the Sunnah in its relationship to the Quraan.

3) Is There A Difference Of Opinion On Ahad And Qiyaas Acting As A Specifier?

As stated above the general rulings in the Quraan can be specified by an ahad hadeeth. This is in accordance with the majority view, for the general (‘aam) of the Quraan is zanni (speculative) and the khaass (specific) of an ahad hadeeth is Qat’ii (definitive in meaning and application). So a zanni may be specified by way of another zanni or a qat’ee.

Though according to the hanafees this is not the case. They argue that the ‘aam (general) of the Quraan is qat’e (definitive), and the ahad hadeeth and qiyaas for that matter, is zanni (speculative). A qat’ee (definitive) may not, according to them, be limited nor speficied by a zanni (speculative).

This difference of opinion only arises on ahad hadeth, thgere is no difference of opinion on the matter of a mutawaatir hadeeth specifying a general rule found in the Quraan.

[For more info please refer to ‘Principles Of Islamic jurisprudence” Pp. 144-149]

The General In The Quraan Being Specified By The Quraan, Sunnah, Ijmaa’ And Qiyaas

Posted in Hadith Studies, Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on January 17, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

In Islaam tere are rulings which are general (i.e, the command to perform the prayer) which have later been specified (i.e, excluding the insane, permature etc.).

The general rulings in the Quraan can be specified by the following ways:

1) The general ruling found in the Quraan being specified by the Quraan.

2) The general ruling found in the Quraan being specified by the Sunnah.

The Sunnah can be further divided into:

(a) Mutawaatir, and

(b) Ahad

3) The general ruling found in the Quraan being specified by Ijmaa’ (consensus).

4) The general ruling found in the Quraan being specified by Qiyaas (analogy).

I will now explain each one with an example for each.

1) The Quraan being specified by the Quraan:

An example of where the Quraan specifies a general ruling found in the Quraan, we may refer to the general ruling of the text on fasting which makes fasting obligatory:

Whoever of you is present in the month, shall fast therin,” [2:185]

This is then immediately specified in:

Whoever is sick or on a journey, shall fast a like number of other days.” [2:185]

The sick and the traveller have thus been exempted, by way of specification (takhsees) from the general ruling of the text.

2) The Quraan being specified by the Sunnah:

As stated above this is either by way of the mutawaatir hadeeth or ahad hadeeth (1).

(a) The Mutawaatir Hadeeth:

An example of where the general ruling found in the Quraan has been specified by a mutawaatir hadeeth we may refer to the hadeth that declares that:

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Hadith Terminology

Posted in Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , , , , , , on November 27, 2009 by TheAuthenticBase

Hadith Terminology

Translated by: Abu Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank
Source: fatwa-online.com

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم
The Beginning of Mustalahul Hadeeth

It has its basis in the Qur.aan and the Sunnah of the Prophet (r). Allaah (I) says:

{ يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا إِنْ جَآءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا . . . }
O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with a news, verify it, . . .
[Soorah al-Hujuraat-049, Aayah-006]

The Prophet (r) said ((May Allaah make a person happy who hears something from us and transmits it as he heard it, since perhaps the one whom it reaches comprehends it better than the one who heard it.)) [Saheeh: Ahmad, at-Tirmidhee and Ibn Hibbaan from Ibn Mas’ood].

Imaam Muslim reports in the introduction of his “Saheeh” that Ibn Seereen – the famous taabi’ee – said: “They never used to ask about the isnaad, but when the civil war broke out, they said: Name to us your narrators, those who belonged to Ahlus-Sunnah, their ahadeeth are accepted and those who are innovators, their ahadeeth are rejected.”

The most famous books on the subject:

1) “al-Muhaddithul Faasil baynar-Raawee wal Waa’ee”

– al-Qaadee Aboo Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Abdir-Rahmaan ar-Raamahurmuzee (d.360H). First book devoted exclusively to the subject.

2) “Ma’rifat ‘Uloomul-Hadeeth”

– Aboo ‘Abdillaah Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillaah al-Haakim an-Neesaabooree (d.405H).

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Using The Aahaad Hadith In Issues Of `Aqidah

Posted in Biddah / Innovation, Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , , , on November 18, 2009 by TheAuthenticBase

Using The Aahaad Hadith In Issues Of `Aqidah

* Mutawaatir vs. Aahaad – Definitions
* Establishing Beliefs with aahaad?
* Items of Belief Founded on Aahaad
* Conclusion

Mutawaatir vs. Aahaad – Definitions

Mutawaatir refers to a hadith whose narrators in each level of its chain of transmission are so numerous that it is not possible for all of them to have conspired in falsehood – whether intentionally or mistakenly. The aahaad is a hadith that does not meet the requirement for the mutawaatir hadith.

The scholars of hadith differ over the number of narrators (from three to more than twenty) that are essential to declare a hadith to be mutawaatir.

Establishing Beliefs with aahaad?

In the past, some latecomers in knowledge (as compared to the salaf of the Sahaabah and the great scholars of Islam) have alleged that, the hadith aahaad cannot be used to establish matters of `aqidah (beliefs) . Listed below are some replies from the scholars of hadith for all who carry such a claim.

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