Archive for salaf

The Ruling On He Who Says The Qurān Is Created

Posted in 'Aqeedah, Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , on March 10, 2017 by TheAuthenticBase

The ‘aqīdah of Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jamā’ah is that the Qurān is the speech of Allāh and that it is uncreated. But what is the ruling on the one who claims it is created? Below I shall present some quotes from our Salaf in this regard:

1) Sufyān Ath-Thawrī said, “The Qurān is the speech of Allāh (azza wa jall) and he who says that it is created then he is a kāfir, and he who doubts in his kufr then he is a kāfir.” [Abdullāh Ibn Al-Imām Ahmad in Kitāb As-Sunnaah, 20]

The likes of this statement has also been narrated from Abū Khuthaymah as is found in Sharh Usūl Iqtiqād Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jamā’ah, 265/2 the famous book of Al-Lālikāī.

2) Abū Bakr Ibn Ayyāsh Al-Muqri’ (died 194h) the trustworthy worshipper, was asked about he who says the Qurān is created so he said “A kāfir, and he who does not say that he is kāfir then he is also a kāfir.” Its chain is authentic and is found in As-Sunnah of Al-Lālikāī.

3) Ibn Hajr said in At-Tahthīb [303/2]: From Dāwūd Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Bayhaqī: It has reached me that Al-Halwānī* said, “I do not make takfīr of he who hesistates with regards to the Qurān.” Dāwūd said: So I asked Salmah Ibn Shabīb (died 247h) about Al-Halwānī so he said: “He is to be thrown in Al-Hush. He who does not bear witness to the kufr of a kāfir then he is kāfir.” Salmah Ibn Shabīb An-Naysābūrī (died 247h) was the Muhaddith of the people of Makkah.

Khatīb Al-Baghdādī also mentioned this in Tārīkh Al-Baghdād.

*Al-Halwānī is Abū Muhammad Al-Halwānī Al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī Ibn Muhammad Al-Hathli Al-Khilāl.

4) Abū Zara’ah ‘UbaydAllāh Ibn Abdil Karīm Ar-Rāzi (died 264h) said, “Whoever claimed that the Qurān is created then he is a disbeliever in Allāh Al-‘Athīm, a kufr that takes one out of the millah, and he who doubts in his kufr from those that understand then he is also kāfir.”

Abū Hātim Muhammad Ibn Idrīs Ar-Rāzi (died 277h) said exactly the same. Al-Lālikāī narrated all of it in As-Sunnah [2/176)]

5) Imām Ahmad in his reply about the Qurān said, “So it is the speech of Allāh not created, and he who says ‘created’ is a kāfir in Allāh Al-‘Athīm and he who does not make takfeer of him is also kāfir.” [Abū Ya’la in Tabaqāt Al-Hanābilah, 315/1. From Masrud Ibn Masurhad Al-Basrāwī]

The Salaf And Their Books

Posted in Knowledge with tags , , , , , , on August 1, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

Ibn Bashkuwaal describes ‘Abdal-Rahmaan Ibn Muhammad as saying: “He did not lend his original books, and if someone requested him persistently, then he used to give it to a scribe who copied it and revised it, then handed it to the borrower.” [Ibn Bashkuwaal, Al-Silaah, 299]

After the death of Muhammad Ibn Maslamah Al-Ansaaree (31BH – 46AH), a booklet was found attached to his sword containing hadeeth. [Raamhurmuzee, Al-Muhaddith, 56]

Daawood Ibn Nusair Al-Taa’ee (100-160) buried his books [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 3/187]

‘Abdullaah Ibn Luhi’ah (96 – 174) had books which got burnt. [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 5/376]

Al-Sakan said: “I asked Ibraheem Ibn Muslim Al-Saa’igh to lend me a book and when he demanded a mortgage, I handed him a copy of the Quraan as a mortgage.” [Imlaa, 178]

Aboo Ishaaq Al-Sabee’ee complained that his grandson Isra’eel filled the house with books. [Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee, Taareekh Bahgdaad, 7/22]

Shu’aib Ibn Abee Hamza (90 – 162) did not allow anyone to utilize his books, but on his deathbed he gave permission to two people to transmit these books on his authority. [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 2/442]

Once, Sufyaan Ath-Thawree (97-161), being afraid of some trouble, hid his books in a cell. Later, when they were brought out, it was found that there were nine heaps of them each reaching in height to the chest of the man. [‘Alee Ibn Ja’d, Musnad, 248]

Az-Zuhree (51 – 124H) collected books in quantity and used to spend his time with them, so much so, that his wife used to say: “I swear by Allaah, these books are harder for me to bear than three co-wives.” [Aboo Al-Fida, Taareekh, 1/204]

The Salaf’s Fear Of Allaah, By Ibn Al-Jawzee

Posted in Dunya | Aakhirah, Miscellaneous with tags , , , , , , on June 20, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

Ummayah Al-Shaamee used to cry and weep in the masjid until his weeping became loud. The ruler of those regions sent him a letter saying, ‘You are disturbing those who pray with your excessive crying and loud weeping, so hold yourself back a little.’ When he read it, he cried and said, ‘The grief of the day of judgement has bequeathed me endless tears. I gain some relief by shedding some of them sometimes.’

Abu Bakr gave away all his wealth, now even sparing his garment.

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab wished that he were an inanimate shrub.

‘Uthmaan wished that after his death never to be resurrected (out of fear of Allaah).

‘Alee Ibn Abee Taalib shouted at this worldly life (saying), “I divorce you thrice, therefore you are unlawful to me now forever.” Even though a single divorce would have sufficed, but he did it thrice to ensure that someday his self-desire would not rekindle the hope of returning to it: not that his nobility would ever allow him to seek a loophole by means of which he would return to it.

Aboo Dardaa’ wished he were a fodder plant chewed by animals.

‘Imraan Ibn Al-Husayn (d.52H) wished he was reduced to ashes.

Indeed you listen to the Quraan but undoubtedly you do not hear it (its message) the way they heard it.

Al-Fudayl Ibn Iyyaad used to cry constantly, to the extent that he used to weep even during his sleep, which used to wake up his family.

Ibn Adham and Al-Saaree used to urinate blood because of their fear of Allaah.

Some people entered upon Al-Junayd while he was on his deathbed and they found him praying. [After he had finished] they greeted him and so he replied to their greeting and said, “This is not a time for wasting,” after which he commenced the salaah again.

Their tongues were busy in the remembrance of Allaah, their inner thoughts were overwhelmed by Allaah’s love, their yes shed tears of fear, and their self flees from his life to the house of asceticism.

Whenever people saw Al-Hasan Al-Basree, they would think as though a calamity had just befallen him.

Maaik Bin Deenaar (d. 130H) had a black line running own his cheek from how much his eyes shed tears.

‘Ataa’ Al-Salamee (a Taabi’ee) used to weep in his room so much that his tears would drain into the gutter of his house. One day his tears plashed upon a person who was walking in the street, whereupon the man shouted, “O people of the house, is this water pure?” ‘Ataa’ replied, “You should wash it off because these are tears of a person who disobeyed Allaah.”

[Kitaab Al-Lataa’if Fil-Waa’iz, by Ibn Al-Jawzee, p. 50, 129, 177, 183 & 184]

Sincerity Of The Salaf

Posted in Miscellaneous with tags , , , , , , , on June 1, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

Whenever Ayyoob As-Sakhstiyaanee (a Taabi’ee) spoke, his heart would become mellow and his eyes would flush with tears immediately, but then he would say, “How severe is this flu that I’m suffering from!

An-Nakh’ee used to recite the Quraan but whenever someone entered upon him he would immediately cover it (so no one would know his good deed).

Ibn Abee Layla used to pretend to be asleep if someone entered upon him while praying.

Al-Hasan Al-Basree once said, “Men (before) used to forbear shedding their tears whenever their tears began to well up (from their fear of Allaah), and if they feared they would be unable to conceal their tears from being noticed by others, they would leave the place so that no one could see them.”

[Kitaab Al-Lataa’if Fil-Waa’iz, by Ibn Al-Jawzee, p. 86]

Abu Hurayrah & His Collection Of Books

Posted in Knowledge with tags , , , , , , on May 1, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

We are not sure whether he (Aboo Hurayrah) had any written collection of ahaadeeth in his early life, but mention is made in a later period of the books he had in his possession:

1) Hasan Ibn ‘Amr saw many books of ahaadeeth in Aboo Hurayrah’s possession. [Ibn Hajr, Fath Al-Baaree, 1/217]

2) It is said that Basheer Ibn Naheek made his collection, copying he book of Aboo Hurayrah, bu the isnaad of this statement is somewhat defective.

The following derived hadeeth from him in written form:

1) ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Ibn Marwaan: He had almost all the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah in written form. [Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqaat, 7/157]

2) Aboo Saalih Al-Sammaan: He transmitted from Aboo Hurayrah and others. Al-A’mash wrote down 1000 hadeeth from him [‘Alee Ibn Ja’d, Musnad, 80]; and Ibraheem An-Nakha’ee (d. 96H) made his collection of Aboo Hurayrah’s hadeeth through Al-A’mash – Aboo Saalih – Aboo Hurayrah [Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ‘Ilal 1/140]. It is not mentioned whether or not Aboo Saalih himself had any written collection, but his son Suhail had a written collection fro him. Therefore, most probably Aboo Saalih had a written collection from Aboo Hurayrah.

3) ‘Aqbah Ibn Aboo Al-Hasnaa: He transmitted a book from Aboo Hurayrah. A copy of this book was in the possession of Adh-Dhahabee. [Adh-Dhahabee, Meezaan Al-‘Itidaal, 3/85]

4) Basheer Ibn Naheek: He made his collection from Aboo Hurayrah, and presented the book to him and even obtained Aboo Hurayrah’s permission to transmit it. [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 1/470]

5) Hammaam Ibn Munabbih: He transmitted from Aboo Hurayrah a saheefah (book) which has been edited and published.

6) Marwaan Ibn Hakam: He made a collection of Aboo Hurayrah’s hadeeth. It was copied by Aboo Al-Za’zaa. [Siyar A’laam An-Nubulaa, 2/431]

7) Muhammad Ibn Sireen: The book was written on an old parchment… This book was in the possession of Yahyaa Ibn Sireen, because in his later days Muhammad Ibn Sireen did not like to have any sort of books. [Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee, Jaami’ 56b]

8) Sa’eed Al Maqburee: Muhammad Ibn ‘Ajlaan had the book of Sa’eed which he had compiled from Aboo Hurayrah. [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 9/342]

9) ‘UbaydAllaah Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mauhab Al-Taimee: His son related a book from him most of which consisted of defective hadeeth. [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 11/254]

Other students of Aboo Hurayrah who wrote down hadeeth (not necessarily from Aboo Hurayrah) include:

1) ‘Abdullaah Ibn Hurmuz. [Hanbal, 2/531]

2) ‘Abdul-Rahmaan Ibn Hurmuz Al-A’raj (40 – 117). [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 5/291]

3) ‘Awn Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Utbah. [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 8/173]

4) Habeeb Ibn Saalim Al-Ansaaree (40 – 110).Hanbal, 4/273]

5) Muhammad Ibn Ziyaad Al-Qurashi (35 – 120). [Ma’rifah, 164]

6) Saalih Ibn Nabhaan (40 – 125). [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 4/406]

7) Yazeed Ibn Abee Habeeb (53 – 128). [Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ‘Ilal, 142b]

8) Zayd Ibn Aslam – Client of Ibn ‘Umar (40 – 136). [Ibn Hajr, Tahdheeb, 3/396 & 7/8]

[Taken from “Studies In Early Hadeeth Literature”, by M. M. Al-Azami, Suhail Academy, Lahore, Pakistan, 2001. Pp. 37-38, 60, 76, 81, 82, 95, 100, 105 & 106]

A Look At The Early Islamic Civilisation, By Sayyid Qutb

Posted in Miscellaneous with tags , , , , , , , , on April 10, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

“The bond of faith and ideology is a free one which human beings choose by their own free-will, after proper consideration and study. The other ties are not only more fitting for animals, but are also imposed on man and he has no say in them.

No human being can change his family descent or the race to which he belongs Nor does he have any choice of the colour of his skin. All these matters are settled before he is even born. The same applies to the land or the country of his birth and the language he speaks as a result of being raised within his particular community. Man has certain material interests and a common destiny with others, but these are also very difficult to change, because they apply to him as well as to his community. There is little room for man’s free-will in all these matters. For this reason, Islaam does not adopt any of these as the basic bond uniting its community.

Faith, ideology and its practical approach of implementation are all matters of free choice. At any moment, a human being can declare his choice of these and determine the community to which he wishes to belong. No restriction is imposed on this choice as a result of man’s colour, language, race, descent, the land of his birth or his material interests which may change from one community to another…

The concrete remarkable result of this attitude was that the Islamic society became an open and all inclusive community in which people of various races, nations, languages and colours were members. No obstacle prevented them from forming a coherent and open society. The rivers of higher talent and various abilities of all races of mankind flowed together into this vast ocean and worked in perfect harmony. Such a coherent mix gave rise to a high level of civilization in a very short period of time. It harnessed the capabilities, ideas and wisdom of all those people to produce a great civilisation, in spite of the fact that in those times, travel was difficult and the means of communication were slow.

In this unique Islamic society Arabs, Persians, Syrians, Egyptians, Moroccans, Turks, Chinese, Indians, Romans, Greeks, Indonesians, Africans and people of other nations and races were gathered together. Their various characteristics were united, and with mutual cooperation, harmony and unity they took part in the construction of the Islamic community and the Islamic culture. This marvellous civilisation was not an ‘Arab’ civilisation but an Islamic one. At no time did it acquire a nationalistic guise, but was instead always based on faith.

All these people came together on an equal footing in a relationship of love, with their minds set on a single goal. They used their best abilities, developed the qualities of their races to the fullest, and brought the essence of their personal, national and historical experiences for the development of this united community, to which they all belonged as equal members and in which their common bond was through their relationship with their Lord. In this community their ‘humanity’ developed without any hindrance. Such characteristics were never witnessed in any other community in the entire history of mankind.”

[Fee Zhilaal Al-Quraan [English trans.], 7/217-218]

Following The Way Of The Companions

Posted in Methodology Of The Salaf with tags , , , on March 1, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

Ash-Shaatibee said: “The early generation (as-Salaf) was the most knowledgeable about the meanings of the Quraan.” [Al-Muwaafaqaat, 3/409]

Ash-Shaatibee said: “They (the Companions) are the example to follow with regards to the way in which shariah and its aims and goals are to be understood.” [Al-Muwaafaqaat, 4/130]

Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yamaan (ra) said: “O people, follow the path of those who came before you, for by Allaah (swt), if you follow their path, then indeed you will succeed tremendously, but if you drift away from it, right or left, you will be greatly misguided.” [Hilyat Al-Awliyaa’, 10/280]

Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee said: “So long as there is evidence in the Quraan and Sunnah, then the excuse for not following them is invalid. If we find no evidence there, then we turn to the opinions of the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (saw) or of one of them.” [Al-Umm, 7/265]

Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee said: “You have no right to give an opinion unless you base it on a reference point or a valid analogy, and the reference point is the Quraan or Sunnah, the words of one of the companions of the Messenger (saw), or the consensus of the people.” [Manaaqib Ash-Shaafi’ee, 367]

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said: “Whatever comes from the Prophet (saw) and his companions, follow it. Then with regards to those who come after them (the taabi’oon), the matter is broad in scope.” [Masaa’il Al-Imaam Ahmad, by Aboo Daawood, p. 276]