Archive for science

Ibn Taymiyyah’s View On Mursal Reports

Posted in Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , , on February 1, 2016 by TheAuthenticBase

Ibn Taymiyyah said:

“The scholars have differed whether to accept or reject the mursal reports. The most correct opinion is that some of them are acceptable, others are rejected, and others are mawqoof…

A mursal report that conflicts with the reports of trustworthy narrators is rejected. And if a mursal report is narrated by two narrators whose shaykhs are different, this confirms its truth, because one would not usually expect them to make identical errors.”

[From an unprinted manuscript by Al-Haafidh Ibn ‘Abdul-Haadee in Al-Maktabat Az-Zahiriyyah in Damascus]

See this post for more quotes regarding the Mursal narrations.

Accepting Narrations From Truthful Innovators On Conditions

Posted in Biddah / Innovation, Hadith Studies with tags , , , on October 10, 2014 by TheAuthenticBase

The people of the sunnah did not vilify or discredit their opponent unless:

1) His innovation led to disbelief,

2) He attacked one of the Companions,

3) He was inviting others to his innovation, or

4) The hadeeth he was narrating was in harmony with the innovation to which he was inviting others.

The scholars of hadeeth criticism would consider all of these points as evidence showing that the narrator was not truthful or sincere. This is why the books of the Sunnah, and in their forefront Bukhaaree and Muslim, related hadeeths from some innovators whom history has shown to be truthful.

Examples of such narrators are ‘Umraan Ibn Hattaan Al-Khaarijee and Abbaan Ibn Taghlab Ash-Shi’ee. As he was discussing the biography of Abbaan Ibn Taghlab Al-Koofee, Al-Haafidh Adh-Dhahabee said:

“A dyed-in-the-wool Shi’ee, but he is truthful. For us is his honesty and against him is his innovation.”

Imaam Aboo Is-haaq Ibraaheem Ibn Ya’qoob Al-Jawzjaanee said:

“Among them was he who deviated away from the truth, yet still possessed an honest tongue. And his hadeeth would be widespread amongst the people since he was forsaken for his innovation but trusted with is narration.

So concerning these individuals, I see no other alternative but to take from their hadeeth that which is (already) known, so long as his innovation does not become strengthened because of that.”

[Ahwaal Ar-Rijaal, p.538]

Al-‘Iraaqee’s Comments On Specifying The Grounds For Jarh (Discrediting A Narrator)

Posted in Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , on January 30, 2012 by TheAuthenticBase

Ibn As-Salaah states that although one must state the reasons for Jarh (discrediting an individual) , if this is not done, it still creates a doubt as to the persons reliability. Al-‘Iraaqee commented on this stance by Ibn As-Salaah by stating:

“The majority of the scholars only mandated a clarification when criticizing from those who were now knowledgeable of the causes of jarh (discrediting a narrator) and Ta’deel (validation/praising a narrator). But as for the one who was aware of their causes, then they would accept his jarh (discrediting of a narrator) without (him having to offer) any explanation (for it).

This becomes clearer in what Al-Khateeb quoted in Al-Kifaayah from Al-Qaadee Aboo Bakr Al-Baaqilaanee that he related that the view of the majority of the scholars was:

‘When a jarh (discrediting) comes from a person who does not know jarh, it is an obligation to explain it.’

But this is not required for those who possess knowledge of this field. Al-Qaadee said:

‘The strongest view in our opinion is that no explanation is needed when the critic is knowledgeable (about jarh), just as it is not required for a person grading someone reliable not to explain those statements by which a praised individual becomes trustworthy…’

What we have quoted here from Al-Qaadee Aboo Bakr is the most correct view.”

[Muqaddamah Ibn As-Salaah Ma’a At-Taqyeedi Wal-Eedaah, p.141]

A Detailed Analysis Of The Khaas (Specific) Verses In The Quraan

Posted in Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 26, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

Abrogation VS specific:

According to the majority of the scholars the verse conveyed in specific terms specifies the verse conveyed in general terms.

According to the majority of scholars the time factor has no role to play in the event of general and specific. The specific always specifies the verse conveyed in general terms. According to the hanafes however, when the specification was revealed after the general verse was revealed, it abrogates the general verse, rather than specifying it.

Below is a table which shows how the chronological order effects the role of specifying the general verses in the Quraan:

Specific in relation to the general Parallel After Unknown Before
Majority Specifies Specifies Specifies
Hanafee Specifies Abrogates Specifies Abrogates

As is seen in this table, when the Specific is parallel, after or unknown (in chronological order of revelation) it specifies the general, but according to the Hanafees, when the specific is after the general, it abrogates it. Likewise, when the order of revelation is unknown, the hanafees presume that it is parallel to the general, thus take it as a form of specifier.

The difference between specifying and abrogating is that abrogation is a total or partial suspension of a ruling at a later date, whereas specification simply limits the application of the ruling.

According to the majority, the specific is a form of bayaan (explanation), whereas the Hanafees say it is a form of bayaan (explanation) when:

(a) the chronological order of both the specific and general is parallel (as seen in the table above), and;

(b) the specific and general are both of the same strength (i.e, qat’ee [decisive] or zanni [speculative]) in their application.

So according to the hanafees, when the specific is after the general, the specific is a form of abrogation, not bayaan (explanation).

The hanafees differ with the majority of scholars when it comes to the detailed rulings of specification (takhsees). The Hanafees say that specification is a partial abrogation whereas the majority of scholars disagree on this and say that it is not a partial abrogation but a bayaan (explanation) or a qualification. [See below for more details on a verse being partially specified/abrogated]

Al-Ghazaalee refutes the two points/conditions the Hanafees maintain ((a) and (b) above) namely that (a) the time factor can change the specification into an abrogation and (b) the strength of the verse determines the difference between specification and abrogation.

Qat’ee and Zanni:

Qat’ee is a definitive proof and zanni is speculative in its proof.

The majority of scholars say that the general a zanni (speculative), whether before or after being specified (so it is open to qualification and ta’weel).

Continue reading

Specifying The General Verses Can Occur By Four Types

Posted in Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on January 24, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

takhsees (specifyication of the general) is accomplished by specifying words or phrases found either within the same verse, or within another verse. The five ways a general verse can be specified are as follows:

1) Exception (Istithnaa):

This is when the verse is applied generally but has exceptions to that general verse. An example of this can be seen in the verse:

The recompense of those who [alladheena] wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter. Except for those who (having fled away and then) came back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [5:33-34]

2) Modification/Description (Sifah):

A verse of the Quraan conveyed in the general form, may sometimes be specified by way of being described or qualified. An example of this is the verse:

[And forbidden to you for marriage are] your stepdaughters, under your guardianship from your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage.” [4:23]

Here we see the general meaning of step-daughters, has thus been qualified with a description of the type of step-daughters. Note; the description thus being, “from your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage.” not “under your guardianship“.

3) Condition (Shart):

A condition placed on a general verse acts like a specifier. It is when a verse is generally targeted but has certain conditions for the application of the ruling to take place. Such conditions usually occur introduced with the word “if (in)”. An example of this can be seen in the verse:

It is prescribed upon you that you bequest a good portion [of your wealth] for your parents and close relations when death approaches any of you [ahadakum], if you have left some wealth; an obligation on those who fear Allaah.” [2:180]

And to illustrate this with another example, we show the verse concerning inheritance:

In what your wives leave, you are entitled to one half if they have no children.” [4:12]

4) Clauses Of Time/Extent (Ghaayah):

This is where a verse general, but restricted with regards to time or extent. Such restrictions (to the generality) usually occur introduced with the word “until (hattaa)”. An example of this can be seen in the verse:

…Do not shave your heads until your sacrificial animal has reached its appointed place [of sacrifice]…” [2:196]

Another good example can be sen in the verse concerning menstruating women:

…Do not come near them [for sexual relations] until they have reached a state of purity…” [2:222]

And yet another easy to see example, in the verse regarding washing of the limbs in wudhoo:

… washing of your faces and hands up to the elbow. ” [5:6]

[Taken form “Usool Al-Tafseer” by Bilaal Philips, Pp. 270-273 & “Principles Of Islamic Jurisprudence” by Muhammad Haashim Kamaali, Pp. 150-151]

A General Verse Could Imply 3 Possible Implications

Posted in Miscellaneous, Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , , , on January 24, 2011 by TheAuthenticBase

The ‘Aamm (general) verse in the Quraan may be divided into three main categories in relationship to the context of the verses in which they occur and the laws and principles which were intended.

First: The General Verse Maintaining Its General:

This is where the general verse remains general. An example of such a verse is:

…And Allaah knows all [kull] things.” [4:176]

Likewise the verse:

Your mothers [ummuhaatukum] have been made forbidden [in marriage] to you…” [4:23]

As there are no exceptions to these verses, they remain general without no specifications or exceptions.

Second: The Figurative ‘Aamm:

This is where the general verse is only figurative, in which the general meaning of the verse was never intended. An example of such a verse is:

Those to whome the people [an-naas] said, ‘The people [an-naas] have gathered against you, so fear them’.” [3:173]

The first expression of “the people” refers specifically to Nu’aym ibn Mas’ood, while the second expression of “the people” refers to Aboo Sufyaan and the Quraysh army, and not the generality which the expression implies.

Third: The Specified ‘Aamm:

This is where the genrality of the ‘Aamm expression is qualified by one of the specific words or phrases. An example of such a verse is:

…Hajj to the house [the Ka’bah] is an obligation to Allaah on all people [an-naas] who are able to find a way there…” [3″97]

The generality of “all people” has been specified by the condition that it is only for those people who can carry out the task (financially and physically).

[Usool At-Tafseer, by Bilal Philips, Pp. 268-270]

An Introduction To The Sciences Of The Qur’aan, By Yaasir Qaadhi

Posted in Books (pdf's, html's & doc's), Qur'an with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on November 29, 2010 by TheAuthenticBase

Click here to download the book. Maa shaa Allaah an excellent book. Topics include:

1) An Iintroduction To ‘Uloomal-Qur’aan

2) The Qur’aan

3) Inspiration – Al-Wahy

4) Gradual Revelation

5) The First And The Last Revelations

6) The Makkee And The Madanee Verses

7) The Causes Of Revelation – Asbaab An-Nuzool

8) The Compilation Of The Qur’aan

9) The Beginning Of The Soorahs

10) The Ahruf Of The Qur’aan

11) The Qira’aat Of The Qur’aan

12) The Clear And Unclear Verses- Al-Muhkam Wa Al-Mutashaabih

13) Abrogation In The Qur’aan- An-Naasikh Wa Al-Mansookh

14) The Miraculous Nature Of The Qur’aan – I’jaazal-Qur’aan

15) The Interpretation Of The Qur’aan – Tafseer

16) The Translation Of The Qur’aan

17) The Qur’aan And Orientalists