Archive for February, 2013

Are There Non-Arabic Words In The Quraan?

Posted in Qur'an with tags , , , , , , on February 27, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

The Qur’an explicitly states that it is all communicated in pure and clear Arabic (al-Nahl, 16:3o). Although the ulema are in agreement that words of non-Arabic origin occur in the Qur’an, they are, nevertheless, words which were admitted and integrated into the language of the Arabs before the revelation of the Qur’an.

To give just a few examples, words such as qistas (scales – occurring in the Sura al-Isra’, 17:35), ghassaq (intense cold) in Sura al-Naba’ (78:2 5) and sijjil (baked clay – in al-Hijr, 15:74) are of Greek, Turkish and Persian origins respectively (1). But this usage is confined to odd words; a phrase or a sentence of non-Arabic origin does not occur in the Qur’an (2).

Since the Qur’an consists of manifest revelation in Arabic, a translation of the Qur’an into another language, or its commentary whether in Arabic or other languages, are not a part of the Qur’an.

However, Imam Abu Hanifah has held the view that the Qur’an is the name for a meaning only, and as such, salah may be performed in its Persian translation. But the disciples of Abu Hanifah have disagreed with this view and it is reported that Abu Hanifah himself reversed his initial ruling, and this is now considered to be the correct view of the Hanafi school (3).

Footnotes:

(1) For an exclusive treatment of words of foreign origin in the Qur’an see Shawkani, Irshad, p. 22ff. See also Ghazali, Mustasfa, I, 68.

(2) Shaltut, Al-Islam, P. 486; von Denffer, ‘Ulum, P. 73.

(3) This report is attributed to a Nuh b. Maryam who has confirmed that Abu Hanifah changed his initial ruling. See Aba Zahrah, Usul, p. 60; Shaltut, Al-Islam, P. 478; Sabuni, Madkhal, P. 4.

[Taken from “Principles Of Islaamic Jurisprudence” by M. H. Kamali, p.19]

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A Woman Is Obliged To Cover Her Face, By Zayd Al-Madkhalee

Posted in Sisters Base with tags , , , , , on February 24, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

Any person with common sense will not doubt that… the face is the chief area of temptation, thus it is an obligation to cover it… Men and women should keep their hearts pure, and this cannot be accomplished except by preventing the means that lead to fornication and shutting down its avenues, the greatest of which is encountering a woman and enjoying a look at her uncovered face, (perhaps) with decorated eyes, arched eyebrows, and dyed fingernails. So fear Allaah O you who call to the unveiling of women, and fear a day that Allaah has prepared for Recompense…

Whoever claims that a woman has the right to uncover her face and hands in front of male-strangers, he has steered away from the truth and correctness. If he is form those who are qualified to make investigations and ijtihaad (come up with rulings), and he is free from deviations, then he receives the reward for his ijtihaad, and his error is pardoned.

However, it is not permissible to follow him in that opinion. But if he is not from this kind of people, then none of his opinions and arguments should be given any regard since the truth has more right to be followed (than individuals).

[Taken from “Four Essays On The Obligation Of Veiling”, Ch.4: The Obligation Of Veiling The Hands And Face, by Sh. Zayd Ibn Muhammad Ibn Haadee Al-Madkhalee, Pp. 81-82]

A Discussion Of The Khimaar That A Woman Must Wear, By Sh. Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Posted in Sisters Base with tags , , , , , , , , , , on February 21, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

Then Allaah specifies women with a command apart from men where He says: “And to not display ther zeenah (adornment) except for that which is apparent from it. And (tell them) to draw their khumur (veils) over their bosoms (juyoob).” Noor:31]

Here Allaah commands the women to wear the hijaab, which is a comprehensive covering that veils the woman’s body including her face, hands, feet, and entire body. This goes as well for her hair, which she must cover in front of men who are not from her mahrams.

And not to display their zeenah (adornment)” meaning she should not expose her adornment regardless if wheather it is her physical adornment, which consists of her body, such as the face, hands and so on, or her artificial or applied adornment such as jewellery, hair-dye, kohl and so on.

A woman was commanded to cover her bodily adornment as well as her artificial and applied adornment, which she decorates her body with, such as dyes, jewellery, kohl and its likes.

Except for that which is apparent from it” refers to the outer garment according to the correct opinion. Meaning: what is apparent by itself without her having to expose it (i.e, what cannot be hidden), and this is the outer garment, which does not constitute temptation or incitement…

And (tell them) to draw their khumur (veils) over their bosoms (juyoob).” Allaah orders the women to draw close their khumar that are over their heads. So a khimaar is that which a woman places on top of her head. Allaah commands her to spread it over her upper chest.

And (tell them) to draw their khumur (veils) over their bosoms (juyoob).” This refers to the openings in the upper part of their garments which expose that throat and neck area. A woman should not leave these parts exposed for men to look at, but shoal instead lower her khimaar over it. If a woman was ordered to cover her throat, then the face is also to be covered for all the more reason.

In fact, the aspect of drawing the khimaar over the upper chest and neck are necessitates that it also fall over the face. The reason for this is because the khimaar is placed over the head. So if it is placed over the head to fall down on the upper chest, it also includes the face.(1)

What further illustrates this is the statement of ‘Aa’ishah where she said:

“Male riders would pass by us while we (wives) were in the state of ihraam with the messenger of Allaah. When they would approach us, (each) one of us would let her jilbaab fall down from (the top of) her head over her face. And when they had passed on, we would uncover our faces.” [Ahmad, Aboo Daawood and Ibn Maajah]

Footnotes:

(1) As the face is between the top of the head (hair) and neck/chest area, and the woman has been obliged to cover her head with a khimaar that falls down to her chest, it is only obvious that this falling from the head to the chest covers her face as well. What further illustrates this is the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah the shaykh then quotes.

[Taken from “Four Essays On The Obligation Of Veiling”, Ch. 3: Advice To Muslim Women, by Sh. Saalih Al-Fawzaan, Pp. 62-63]

Quotes From ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab

Posted in Miscellaneous with tags , , on February 18, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “The happiest of people is the one under whose care people are happy because of him, and the most miserable of people is the one under whose care people are miserable because of him.” [Manaaqib ‘Umar, by Ibn Al-Jawzee, p.130]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “We used to say that this Ummah will be doomed by knowledgeable hypocrites.” [Al-Wilaayah ‘Alaa Al-Buldaan, 1/142]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab would write to his governors during his caliphate and say: “The most important of your affairs in my view is prayer; whoever prays regularly has protected his faith, but whoever neglects it, is bound to be more negligent in other issues of faith.” [At-Taareeqah Al-Hakamiyah, p.240]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “If I live, I would not leave the widows of Iraaq in need of anyone after me.

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “Do not put off today’s work until tomorrow, lest work accumulate and you achieve nothing.” [Munaaqib Ameer Al-Mu’mineen, by Ibn Al-Jawzee, p.129]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “There is no relationship between Allaah and anyone except through obedience to Him.” [Taareekh At-Tabaree, 4/306]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “Ask Allaah for help against your evil whims and desires just as you ask Him for help against your enemies.” [Al-Faarooq ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, by Muhammad rasheed Rida, p. 119]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “I wish you knew what I have in my heart for you, but there is no way for you to know except by my actions.” [Taareekh At-Tabaree, 4/409]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “Whoever acts on whims and desires and sin loses out and harms no one but himself. Whoever follows the sunnah and adheres to laws and follows the right path, seeking that which is with Allaah for those who obey Him, is doing the right thing and is a winner.” [Taareekh At-Tabaree, 4/410]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “The one who is in a position of leadership is more likely to fall into temptation or sin, except those whom Allaah protects, and they are few.” [Futooh Ash-Shaam, p.100]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “If I slept during the day I would have neglected the people, and if I slept during the night I would have neglected myself. How can I sleep when I have these two concerns, O Mu’aawiyah?” [Futooh Misr Wa Al-Maghrib, p.105]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “Whoever appoints a man because of favouritism or blood ties, and does not appoint him for any other reason, has betrayed Allaah and His Messenger. And whoever appoints an evildoer knowing that he is an evildoer, is just like him.” [Al-Idaarah Al-‘Askariyah Fee Ad-Dawlat Al-Islaamiyah, 1/66]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “The leader of an army or a campaign should not give anyone the hadd punishment of lashes until the battle is over, lest the Devil cause him to join the disbelievers.” [Taareekh Al-Khulafaa’ by As-Suyootee, p.131]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said (advising Sa’d Ibn Abee Waqqaas, who was the leader of an army), “I urge you and the troops who are with you to fear Allaah in all circumstances, for fear of Allaah is the best means of preparation to face the enemy and the best plan at times of war. I command you and those who are with you to be more cautious of sin than of your enemy, for the sins of an army are more alarming for them then their enemy. And the Muslims are only granted divine help because of their enemy’s disobedience towards Allaah.” [Al-Faarooq ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, by Muhammad Rasheed Rida, p.119]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said, when he was on his deathbed, offering advice to the next caliph, saying: “I advise the caliph who comes after me to treat the soldiers in the outposts well, for they are the shield of Islam. They collect money and annoy the enemy. He should not take from them anything except that which is surplus to their needs, with their consent.

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “By Allaah, besides Whom there is no other god, if I had all the gold and silver in the world, I would pay it to avoid the terror of what comes after death.” [Saheeh At-Tawtheeq Fee Seerat Wa Hayaat Al-Faarooq, p.383]

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “By Allaah, if I had an earth-full of gold, I would use it to ransom myself from the punishment of Allaah before I saw it.” [Bukhaaree]

The Reality Of The Ash’arees, By Ibn Taymiyyah

Posted in 'Aqeedah with tags , , , , on February 15, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

Ibn Taymiyyah said:

“The closest one in resemblance to these individuals, i.e. the Jahmiyyah, are the Ash’arees, who say:

‘Allaah has seven attributes – Life, Knowledge, Ability, Desire (or Will), Speech, Hearing and Sight.’

And they negate all of the other attributes besides these. There are some among them who also include only the Hand as part of Allaah’s Attributes, and others who stop short of negating all of the other Attributes. However, the extremists among them negate absolutely all of Allaah’s other Attributes besides those mentioned above.

As for the Mu’tazilah, they negate all of Allaah’s Attributes in the general sense, adopting their (innovated) rules and principles…

They are the closest of people in resemblance to the Sabian philosophers amongst the Romans and those Arabs and Persians who followed their way who claim that all of the Attributes can be traced back to a plus or a minus or a combination of both. So all of these people are misguided and deniers of the Messengers.

Anyone whom Allaah has granted knowledge and insight of what the Messengers brought and knows the reality of the shortcoming of these individuals, will know for certain that they deny Allaah’s Names and Attributes and that they reject the Messengers, the Book and what the Messengers were sent with. This is why they would say:

‘Innovations are derived from disbelief and they eventually lead to it.’

And they say:

‘The Mutazilah are the sister counterparts of the philosophers, and the Ash’arees are the sister counterpart of the Mu’tazilah.’ “

[Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa, 6/358]

Do Not Have Tomorrow As Your Main Concern

Posted in Dunya | Aakhirah with tags , , , , , on February 12, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

Al-Hasan Al-Basree said:

“Beware of entering upon a day having tomorrow or other future days as your main concern and worry.

(If you do so), you will increase in anxiety and difficulty, and you will wish to collect during your day, what will suffice you for several days. How stupid! One ends up being preoccupied, one’s grief gets worse and one’s toil and labour becomes great.

And the slave ends up neglecting doing (good) deeds as a result of these hopes (he has in tomorrow and the future days).”

[Al-Hilyah by Aboo Nu’aym, 2/139]

An Orientalist’s View On The Isnaad System

Posted in Hadith Studies with tags , , , , , , , , , , on February 9, 2013 by TheAuthenticBase

A contemporary Christian author, Asad Rustum, a former history professor at the American University in Beirut, wrote a book about historical narrations. In his book, he depended on the principles of hadeeth criticism, admitting that they consist of the best methods to authenticate historical reports and narrations. He wrote in chapter 6:

“The achievements of the scholars of hadeeth in this regard, over hundreds of years, are indeed worthy of wonder and respect. Here are some of the exact phrases we relate to you from their books to show you their scholarly precision and to acknowledge their contribution and favor to history.”

He then begins to relate from Imaam Maalik, Imaam Muslim, Al-Ghazaalee, Al-Qaadee ‘Iyaad, and Ibn As-Salaah.